Documenting Exxon-Mobil's funding of climate change skeptics.

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FACTSHEET: George C. Marshall Institute, GMI

DETAILS

1625 K Street, NW, Suite 1050 Washington, DC 20006
Phone: 202-296-9655
Fax: 202-296-9714

Founded in 1984, The George Marshall Institute primarily focused on defense issues, advocating funding for Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative and Star Wars. GMI has since branched out and is one of the leading think tanks trying to debunk climate change.

GMI works on a range of issues, including civic environmentalism, climate change, national defense, bioterrorism, and missile defense. GMI publishes papers and holds "roundtables." Many of these roundtables have featured climate change skeptics such as Roger Bate, Willie Soon, Margo Thorning, and GMI's own Sallie Baliunas.

In 1989, the Marshall Institute released a report arguing that "cyclical variations in the intensity of the sun would offset any climate change associated with elevated greenhouse gases." Although it was refuted by the IPCC, the report was used by the Bush Sr. Administration to argue for a more lenient climate change policy. GMI has since published numerous reports and articles attacking the Kyoto protocol and undermining the climate science. GMI is a former member of the Cooler Heads Coalition.

GMI used to restrict its funding sources to private foundations and individual donars to avoid conflict of interest, but in the late nineties, then GMI President Jeffrey Salmon wrote, "when the Institute turned its attention to the science of global warming, it decided it would appeal successfully to industry for financial support." This fall, the Institute received its first-ever grant from a corporate foundation-- the Exxon Education Foundation. (http://web.archive.org/web/20020913050409/http://www.marshall.org/funding.htm)

According to Media Transparency.org, the Institute received $5,757,803 since 1985 from conservative foundations including the Castle Rock Foundation (Coors), Earhart Foundation, John M. Olin Foundation, the Sarah Scaife Foundation, Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation, and the Carthage Foundation.

KEY QUOTES

"Wise, effective climate policy flows from a sound scientific foundation and a clear understanding of what science does and does not tell us about human influence and about courses of action to manage risk. Many of the temperature data and computer models used to predict climate change are themselves uncertain. Reducing these many uncertainties requires a significant shift in the way climate change research is carried out in the U.S. and elsewhere."
Source: George Marshall Institute website 4/04

2 February, 2007
"Surface temperature records over recent decades and projections for the future are subject to continuing debate. The number of surface measuring stations has declined dramatically and the loss of that data may seriously affect the accuracy of surface temperature measurements. Without better, more accurate, and spatially comprehensive global surface measurements and the factors that influence them, the computer models used to project future temperatures do not have the certainty that is asserted for them." "While the [IPCC] SPM’s underlying assessment documents should provide an improved basis for evaluating the benefits of additional actions, the underlying state of knowledge does not justify scare tactics or provide sufficient support for proposals of the kind of actions being proposed by some industrial companies, environmental organizations and members of Congress to suppress energy use and impose large economic burdens on the US economy."
Source: George Marshall Institute, Statement on the IPCC Fourth Assessment SPM, Feb 2007 [PDF]

KEY DEEDS

12 April, 2004
Sponsored a "Washington Roundtable on Science and Public Policy" at which Dr. David Legates gave a presentation entitled "Global Warming and the Hydrological Cycle." Legates argued that climate change is unlikely to cause increased extreme weather.
Source: "Global Warming and the Hydrological Cycle," David Legates 4/12/04

14 December, 2005
Published the book "Shattered Consensus: The True State of Global Warming," edited by Patrick J. Michaels and containing essays by global warming skeptics Sallie L. Baliunas, Robert C. Balling Jr., Randall S. Cerveny, John Christy, Robert E. Davis, Oliver W. Frauenfeld, Ross McKitrick, Patrick J. Michaels, Eric S. Posmentier, Willie Soon.
Source: George Marshall Institute, "Shattered Consensus" , Dec 2005

FUNDING

George C. Marshall Institute has received $865,000 from ExxonMobil since 1998.

1999
$50,000 ExxonMobil Foundation
'support for science and public policy education programs'
Source: ExxonMobil Foundation 1999 IRS 990

2000
$50,000 ExxonMobil Foundation
general support
Source: ExxonMobil Foundation 2000 IRS 990

2001
$60,000 ExxonMobil Corporate Giving
'climate change work'
Source: ExxonMobil 2001 Worldwide Giving Report

2002
$80,000 ExxonMobil Foundation
'global climate change program'
Source: ExxonMobil 2002 Worldwide Giving Report

2002
$10,000 ExxonMobil Corporate Giving
Awards Dinner
Source: ExxonMobil 2002 Worldwide Giving Report

2003
$95,000 ExxonMobil Foundation
Global Climate Change Program
Source: ExxonMobil 2003 Worldwide Giving Report

2004
$25,000 Exxon Corporation
Awards Dinner -- Climate Change Activities
Source: ExxonMobil 2004 Worldwide Giving Report

2004
$145,000 ExxonMobil Foundation
Climate Change
Source: ExxonMobil 2004 Worldwide Giving Report

2005
$90,000 ExxonMobil Foundation
DISCREPANCY: 2005 Corporate Giving Report: General Operating Support. IRS 990 form 2005: Climate Change.
Source: ExxonMobil 2005 Worldwide Giving Report

2005
$25,000 ExxonMobil Corporate Giving
Awards Dinner and General Operating Support
Source: ExxonMobil 2005 Worldwide Giving Report

2006
$85,000 ExxonMobil Corporate Giving
General support and annual dinner
Source: ExxonMobil 2006 Worldwide Giving Report

2007
$125,000 ExxonMobil Foundation
Source: ExxonMobil 2007 Worldwide Giving Report

2011
$25,000 ExxonMobil Corporate Giving
Source: ExxonMobil corporate funding 2011, public policy

KEY PEOPLE

Sallie Baliunas
Former Senior Scientist; Science Advisory Board Member
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Frederick Seitz
Chairman Emeritus, Board of Directors
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Jeff Kueter
President
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Robert Jastrow
Chairman Emeritus, Board of Directors
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

William OKeefe
Chief Executive Officer
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Bruce Ames
Member, Board of Directors
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Willie Soon
Senior Scientist
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Margo Thorning
Roundtable Speaker
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Ross McKitrick
Expert
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

David R. Legates
Expert
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Sherwood Idso
Expert
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Craig Idso
Expert
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

James R. Schlesinger
Expert
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Howard Kleinberg
Research Analyst
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Rodney W. Nichols
Board Member
Source: George C Marshall Institute

PEOPLE

Patrick J. Michaels
Author
Source: Marshall Institute Webpage (2006)

Thomas L. Clancy Jr.
Member, Board of Directors
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

William Happer
Chairman of the Board of Directors
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Willis M. Hawkins
Former member of the Board of Directors (deceased)
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Bernadine Healy
Member, Board of Directors
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

John H. Moore
Member, Board of Directors
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Robert Sproull
Member, Board of Directors
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Chauncey Starr
Member, Board of Directors
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Lynn Wallis
Vice President of Operations
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Mark Herlong
Program Director
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Roger Bate
Former Roundtable Speaker
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Henry Miller
Roundtable Speaker
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Michael Gough
Roundtable Speaker
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Stephen McIntyre
Expert
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Jeffrey Marsh
Expert
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

W. David Montgomery
Expert
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Michael E. Canes
Expert
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Leonard Bernstein
Expert
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Jeffrey Salmon
Expert
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Kirill Ya. Kondratyev
Expert
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Eric S. Posmentier
Expert
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

Gregory Canavan
Scientific Advisor, Board of Directors
Source: George Marshall Institute website 5/06

John Christy
Author
Source: Marshall Institute Website (2006)

Roy W. Spencer
Author
Source: Marshall Institute Website (2006)

James J. O'Brien
Author
Source: Marshall Institute Website

Richard Lindzen
Author
Source: Marshall Institute Website (2006)

David Henderson
Expert
Source: George C. Marshall Institute website 2007

Eric P. Loewen
Fellow
Source: Marshall Institute, Loewen bio, 2007

Roger Cohen
expert
Source: George C Marshall Institute

SOURCES

ExxonMobil 2001 Worldwide Giving Report
Public Information and Policy Research
http://research.greenpeaceusa.org/?a=view&d=4388

ExxonMobil 2002 Worldwide Giving Report
Public Information and Policy Research
http://research.greenpeaceusa.org/?a=view&d=4386

ExxonMobil Foundation 2000 IRS 990
ExxonMobil Foundation 2000 IRS 990
http://research.greenpeaceusa.org/?a=view&d=4390

ExxonMobil Foundation 1999 IRS 990
ExxonMobil Foundation 1999 IRS 990

George Marshall Institute website 4/04
http://www.marshall.org

ExxonMobil 2003 Worldwide Giving Report
Public Information and Policy Research
http://research.greenpeaceusa.org/?a=view&d=4389

"Global Warming and the Hydrological Cycle," David Legates 4/12/04
http://www.marshall.org/pdf/materials/207.pdf

ExxonMobil 2004 Worldwide Giving Report
2004 Worldwide Contributions and Community Investments Public Information and Policy Research
http://research.greenpeaceusa.org/?a=view&d=4380

ExxonMobil 2005 Worldwide Giving Report
Public Information and Policy Research
http://research.greenpeaceusa.org/?a=view&d=4387

George Marshall Institute website 5/06
http://www.marshall.org

Marshall Institute Website (2006)
Christy and Spencer authored a report using "satellite microwave data beginning in 1979, which showed little or no warming above the surface."
http://www.marshall.org/article.php?id=415

Marshall Institute Website
Report authored by O'Brien discusses climate change's impact on Atlantic hurricanes.
http://www.marshall.org/article.php?id=364

Marshall Institute Website (2006)
"Climate Alarm- Where Does It Come From?"
http://www.marshall.org/article.php?id=264

Marshall Institute Webpage (2006)
http://www.marshall.org/article.php?id=145

George C. Marshall Institute website 2007
http://www.marshall.org/experts.php?id=120

Marshall Institute, Loewen bio, 2007
http://www.marshall.org/experts.php?id=166

George Marshall Institute, Statement on the IPCC Fourth Assessment SPM, Feb 2007 [PDF]
http://www.marshall.org/pdf/materials/496.pdf

George Marshall Institute, "Shattered Consensus" , Dec 2005
http://www.marshall.org/article.php?id=357

ExxonMobil 2006 Worldwide Giving Report
Public Information and Policy Research downloaded from Exxon website
http://research.greenpeaceusa.org/?a=view&d=4381

ExxonMobil 2007 Worldwide Giving Report
http://research.greenpeaceusa.org/?a=download&d=4586

George C Marshall Institute
http://www.marshall.org/experts.php?id=252

ExxonMobil corporate funding 2011, public policy
http://www.webcitation.org/68w7Tt51X